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In other cases, a method argument can be either a null string or an empty string. For example, if you are providing an IFormattable implementation for a class, you want to equate both a null string and an empty string with the general "G" format specifier.

The String class includes the following two convenience methods that enable you to test whether a string is null or empty:.

IsNullOrEmpty , which indicates whether a string is either null or is equal to String. This method eliminates the need to use code such as the following:.

Empty , or consists exclusively of white-space characters. ToString implementation of a custom Temperature class.

The method supports the "G", "C", "F", and "K" format strings. If an empty format string or a format string whose value is null is passed to the method, its value is changed to the "G" format string.

A String object is called immutable read-only , because its value cannot be modified after it has been created.

Methods that appear to modify a String object actually return a new String object that contains the modification.

Because strings are immutable, string manipulation routines that perform repeated additions or deletions to what appears to be a single string can exact a significant performance penalty.

For example, the following code uses a random number generator to create a string with characters in the range 0x to 0xF.

Although the code appears to use string concatenation to append a new character to the existing string named str , it actually creates a new String object for each concatenation operation.

You can use the StringBuilder class instead of the String class for operations that make multiple changes to the value of a string.

Unlike instances of the String class, StringBuilder objects are mutable; when you concatenate, append, or delete substrings from a string, the operations are performed on a single string.

When you have finished modifying the value of a StringBuilder object, you can call its StringBuilder. ToString method to convert it to a string.

The following example replaces the String used in the previous example to concatenate random characters in the range to 0x to 0xF with a StringBuilder object.

Members of the String class perform either ordinal or culture-sensitive linguistic operations on a String object. An ordinal operation acts on the numeric value of each Char object.

A culture-sensitive operation acts on the value of the String object, and takes culture-specific casing, sorting, formatting, and parsing rules into account.

Culture-sensitive operations execute in the context of an explicitly declared culture or the implicit current culture. The two kinds of operations can produce very different results when they are performed on the same string.

NET also supports culture-insensitive linguistic string operations by using the invariant culture CultureInfo.

InvariantCulture , which is loosely based on the culture settings of the English language independent of region.

Unlike other System. CultureInfo settings, the settings of the invariant culture are guaranteed to remain consistent on a single computer, from system to system, and across versions of.

The invariant culture can be seen as a kind of black box that ensures stability of string comparisons and ordering across all cultures.

If your application makes a security decision about a symbolic identifier such as a file name or named pipe, or about persisted data such as the text-based data in an XML file, the operation should use an ordinal comparison instead of a culture-sensitive comparison.

This is because a culture-sensitive comparison can yield different results depending on the culture in effect, whereas an ordinal comparison depends solely on the binary value of the compared characters.

Most methods that perform string operations include an overload that has a parameter of type StringComparison , which enables you to specify whether the method performs an ordinal or culture-sensitive operation.

In general, you should call this overload to make the intent of your method call clear. For best practices and guidance for using ordinal and culture-sensitive operations on strings, see Best Practices for Using Strings.

Operations for casing , parsing and formatting , comparison and sorting , and testing for equality can be either ordinal or culture-sensitive.

The following sections discuss each category of operation. You should always call a method overload that makes the intent of your method call clear. For example, instead of calling the Compare String, String method to perform a culture-sensitive comparison of two strings by using the conventions of the current culture, you should call the Compare String, String, StringComparison method with a value of StringComparison.

CurrentCulture for the comparisonType argument. For more information, see Best Practices for Using Strings.

You can download the Sorting Weight Tables , a set of text files that contain information on the character weights used in sorting and comparison operations for Windows operating systems, and the Default Unicode Collation Element Table , the sort weight table for Linux and macOS.

Casing rules determine how to change the capitalization of a Unicode character; for example, from lowercase to uppercase.

Often, a casing operation is performed before a string comparison. For example, a string might be converted to uppercase so that it can be compared with another uppercase string.

You can convert the characters in a string to lowercase by calling the ToLower or ToLowerInvariant method, and you can convert them to uppercase by calling the ToUpper or ToUpperInvariant method.

In addition, you can use the TextInfo. ToTitleCase method to convert a string to title case. NET Core running on Linux and macOS systems only: The collation behavior for the C and Posix cultures is always case-sensitive because these cultures do not use the expected Unicode collation order.

We recommend that you use a culture other than C or Posix for performing culture-sensitive, case-insensitive sorting operations. Casing operations can be based on the rules of the current culture, a specified culture, or the invariant culture.

Because case mappings can vary depending on the culture used, the result of casing operations can vary based on culture.

The actual differences in casing are of three kinds:. The following example demonstrates how a string comparison designed to prevent file system access can fail if it relies on a culture-sensitive casing comparison.

The casing conventions of the invariant culture should have been used. Differences in case mappings between the invariant culture and all other cultures.

In these cases, using the casing rules of the invariant culture to change a character to uppercase or lowercase returns the same character.

For all other cultures, it returns a different character. Some of the affected characters are listed in the following table.

In most cultures, a two-letter mixed-case pair is equal to the equivalent two-letter uppercase or lowercase pair. This is not true for the following two-letter pairs in the following cultures, because in each case they are compared to a digraph:.

However, it is unusual to encounter a situation in which a culture-sensitive comparison of these pairs creates problems, because these pairs are uncommon in fixed strings or identifiers.

The following example illustrates some of the differences in casing rules between cultures when converting strings to uppercase.

Formatting and parsing are inverse operations. Formatting rules determine how to convert a value, such as a date and time or a number, to its string representation, whereas parsing rules determine how to convert a string representation to a value such as a date and time.

Both formatting and parsing rules are dependent on cultural conventions. The following example illustrates the ambiguity that can arise when interpreting a culture-specific date string.

Similarly, as the following example shows, a single string can produce different dates depending on the culture whose conventions are used in the parsing operation.

Conventions for comparing and sorting strings vary from culture to culture. For example, the sort order may be based on phonetics or on the visual representation of characters.

In East Asian languages, characters are sorted by the stroke and radical of ideographs. Sorting also depends on the order languages and cultures use for the alphabet.

In addition, comparisons can be case-sensitive or case-insensitive, and in some cases casing rules also differ by culture. Ordinal comparison, on the other hand, uses the Unicode code points of individual characters in a string when comparing and sorting strings.

Sort rules determine the alphabetic order of Unicode characters and how two strings compare to each other. For example, the String.

If the parameter value is StringComparison. CurrentCulture , the method performs a linguistic comparison that uses the conventions of the current culture; if the parameter value is StringComparison.

Ordinal , the method performs an ordinal comparison. Consequently, as the following example shows, if the current culture is U.

English, the first call to the String. Compare String, String, StringComparison method using culture-sensitive comparison considers "a" less than "A", but the second call to the same method using ordinal comparison considers "a" greater than "A".

A word sort performs a culture-sensitive comparison of strings in which certain nonalphanumeric Unicode characters might have special weights assigned to them.

For example, the hyphen - might have a very small weight assigned to it so that "coop" and "co-op" appear next to each other in a sorted list.

For a list of the String methods that compare two strings using word sort rules, see the String operations by category section.

A string sort also performs a culture-sensitive comparison. It is similar to a word sort, except that there are no special cases, and all nonalphanumeric symbols come before all alphanumeric Unicode characters.

Two strings can be compared using string sort rules by calling the CompareInfo. Compare method overloads that have an options parameter that is supplied a value of CompareOptions.

Note that this is the only method that. NET provides to compare two strings using string sort rules. An ordinal sort compares strings based on the numeric value of each Char object in the string.

An ordinal comparison is automatically case-sensitive because the lowercase and uppercase versions of a character have different code points.

However, if case is not important, you can specify an ordinal comparison that ignores case. This is equivalent to converting the string to uppercase by using the invariant culture and then performing an ordinal comparison on the result.

For a list of the String methods that compare two strings using ordinal sort rules, see the String operations by category section.

A culture-sensitive comparison is any comparison that explicitly or implicitly uses a CultureInfo object, including the invariant culture that is specified by the CultureInfo.

InvariantCulture property. The implicit culture is the current culture, which is specified by the Thread.

CurrentCulture and CultureInfo. CurrentCulture properties. There is considerable variation in the sort order of alphabetic characters that is, characters for which the Char.

IsLetter property returns true across cultures. You can specify a culture-sensitive comparison that uses the conventions of a specific culture by supplying a CultureInfo object to a string comparison method such as Compare String, String, CultureInfo, CompareOptions.

You can specify a culture-sensitive comparison that uses the conventions of the current culture by supplying StringComparison.

CurrentCulture , StringComparison. Ordinal or CompareOptions. OrdinalIgnoreCase to an appropriate overload of the Compare method.

A culture-sensitive comparison is generally appropriate for sorting whereas an ordinal comparison is not. An ordinal comparison is generally appropriate for determining whether two strings are equal that is, for determining identity whereas a culture-sensitive comparison is not.

The following example illustrates the difference between culture-sensitive and ordinal comparison. Use the following general guidelines to choose an appropriate sorting or string comparison method:.

If you want the strings to be ordered based on the user's culture, you should order them based on the conventions of the current culture.

If the user's culture changes, the order of sorted strings will also change accordingly. For example, a thesaurus application should always sort words based on the user's culture.

If you want the strings to be ordered based on the conventions of a specific culture, you should order them by supplying a CultureInfo object that represents that culture to a comparison method.

For example, in an application designed to teach students a particular language, you want strings to be ordered based on the conventions of one of the cultures that speaks that language.

If you want the order of strings to remain unchanged across cultures, you should order them based on the conventions of the invariant culture or use an ordinal comparison.

For example, you would use an ordinal sort to organize the names of files, processes, mutexes, or named pipes. For a comparison that involves a security decision such as whether a username is valid , you should always perform an ordinal test for equality by calling an overload of the Equals method.

The culture-sensitive sorting and casing rules used in string comparison depend on the version of the.

In the. On other Windows operating systems, it conforms to the Unicode 5. NET Core, it depends on the version of the Unicode Standard supported by the underlying operating system.

For more information about word, string, and ordinal sort rules, see the System. CompareOptions topic. For additional recommendations on when to use each rule, see Best Practices for Using Strings.

Ordinarily, you don't call string comparison methods such as Compare directly to determine the sort order of strings. Instead, comparison methods are called by sorting methods such as Array.

The following example performs four different sorting operations word sort using the current culture, word sort using the invariant culture, ordinal sort, and string sort using the invariant culture without explicitly calling a string comparison method, although they do specify the type of comparison to use.

Note that each type of sort produces a unique ordering of strings in its array. NET uses sort keys to support culturally sensitive string comparison.

Each character in a string is given several categories of sort weights, including alphabetic, case, and diacritic.

A sort key, represented by the SortKey class, provides a repository of these weights for a particular string. If your app performs a large number of searching or sorting operations on the same set of strings, you can improve its performance by generating and storing sort keys for all the strings that it uses.

When a sort or comparison operation is required, you use the sort keys instead of the strings. For more information, see the SortKey class.

If you don't specify a string comparison convention, sorting methods such as Array. Sort Array perform a culture-sensitive, case-sensitive sort on strings.

The following example illustrates how changing the current culture affects the order of sorted strings in an array.

It creates an array of three strings. First, it sets the System. CurrentCulture property to en-US and calls the Array.

Sort Array method. The resulting sort order is based on sorting conventions for the English United States culture. Next, the example sets the System.

CurrentCulture property to da-DK and calls the Array. Sort method again. Notice how the resulting sort order differs from the en-US results because it uses the sorting conventions for Danish Denmark.

If your primary purpose in comparing strings is to determine whether they are equal, you should call the String.

Equals method. Typically, you should use Equals to perform an ordinal comparison. The String. Compare method is intended primarily to sort strings.

String search methods, such as String. StartsWith and String. IndexOf , also can perform culture-sensitive or ordinal string comparisons. The following example illustrates the differences between ordinal and culture-sensitive comparisons using the IndexOf method.

An ordinal search, on the other hand, does not find a match in either case. IndexOf , also can perform culture-sensitive or ordinal string comparisons to determine whether a character or substring is found in a specified string.

The search methods in the String class that search for an individual character, such as the IndexOf method, or one of a set of characters, such as the IndexOfAny method, all perform an ordinal search.

To perform a culture-sensitive search for a character, you must call a CompareInfo method such as CompareInfo. LastIndexOf String, Char.

Note that the results of searching for a character using ordinal and culture-sensitive comparison can be very different.

The following example illustrates the difference between the String. IndexOf Char and CompareInfo. IndexOf String, Char methods when searching for an individual character.

On the other hand, String class methods that search for a string rather than a character perform a culture-sensitive search if search options are not explicitly specified by a parameter of type StringComparison.

The sole exception is Contains , which performs an ordinal search. Use the String. Compare method to determine the relationship of two strings in the sort order.

Typically, this is a culture-sensitive operation. In contrast, call the String. Equals method to test for equality. Because the test for equality usually compares user input with some known string, such as a valid user name, a password, or a file system path, it is typically an ordinal operation.

It is possible to test for equality by calling the String. Compare method and determining whether the return value is zero.

However, this practice is not recommended. To determine whether two strings are equal, you should call one of the overloads of the String. The preferred overload to call is either the instance Equals String, StringComparison method or the static Equals String, String, StringComparison method, because both methods include a System.

StringComparison parameter that explicitly specifies the type of comparison. The following example illustrates the danger of performing a culture-sensitive comparison for equality when an ordinal one should be used instead.

As a result, file system access is inadvertently permitted. On the other hand, if an ordinal comparison is performed, the comparison for equality succeeds, and file system access is denied.

Some Unicode characters have multiple representations. Multiple representations for a single character complicate searching, sorting, matching, and other string operations.

The Unicode standard defines a process called normalization that returns one binary representation of a Unicode character for any of its equivalent binary representations.

Normalization can use several algorithms, called normalization forms, that follow different rules. When strings have been normalized to the same normalization form, they can be compared by using ordinal comparison.

An ordinal comparison is a binary comparison of the Unicode scalar value of corresponding Char objects in each string.

The String class includes a number of methods that can perform an ordinal comparison, including the following:. The method performs an ordinal comparison if you supply a value of StringComparison.

Ordinal or OrdinalIgnoreCase for this parameter. The overloads of the CompareOrdinal method. Methods that use ordinal comparison by default, such as Contains , Replace , and Split.

Methods that search for a Char value or for the elements in a Char array in a string instance. You can determine whether a string is normalized to normalization form C by calling the String.

IsNormalized method, or you can call the String. IsNormalized NormalizationForm method to determine whether a string is normalized to a specified normalization form.

You can also call the String. Normalize method to convert a string to normalization form C, or you can call the String.

Normalize NormalizationForm method to convert a string to a specified normalization form. For step-by-step information about normalizing and comparing strings, see the Normalize and Normalize NormalizationForm methods.

The following simple example illustrates string normalization. It then converts each string to the supported normalization forms, and again performs an ordinal comparison of each string in a specified normalization form.

In each case, the second test for equality shows that the strings are equal. For more information about normalization and normalization forms, see System.

The String class provides members for comparing strings, testing strings for equality, finding characters or substrings in a string, modifying a string, extracting substrings from a string, combining strings, formatting values, copying a string, and normalizing a string.

You can compare strings to determine their relative position in the sort order by using the following String methods:. Compare returns an integer that indicates the relationship of one string to a second string in the sort order.

CompareOrdinal returns an integer that indicates the relationship of one string to a second string based on a comparison of their code points.

CompareTo returns an integer that indicates the relationship of the current string instance to a second string in the sort order.

You call the Equals method to determine whether two strings are equal. The instance Equals String, String, StringComparison and the static Equals String, StringComparison overloads let you specify whether the comparison is culture-sensitive or ordinal, and whether case is considered or ignored.

Most tests for equality are ordinal, and comparisons for equality that determine access to a system resource such as a file system object should always be ordinal.

The String class includes two kinds of search methods:. Methods that return a Boolean value to indicate whether a particular substring is present in a string instance.

Methods that indicate the starting position of a substring in a string instance. If you want to search a string for a particular pattern rather than a specific substring, you should use regular expressions.

For more information, see. NET Regular Expressions. The String class includes the following methods that appear to modify the value of a string:.

Insert inserts a string into the current String instance. PadLeft inserts one or more occurrences of a specified character at the beginning of a string.

PadRight inserts one or more occurrences of a specified character at the end of a string. Remove deletes a substring from the current String instance.

Replace replaces a substring with another substring in the current String instance. ToLower and ToLowerInvariant convert all the characters in a string to lowercase.

ToUpper and ToUpperInvariant convert all the characters in a string to uppercase. Trim removes all occurrences of a character from the beginning and end of a string.

TrimEnd removes all occurrences of a character from the end of a string. TrimStart removes all occurrences of a character from the beginning of a string.

All string modification methods return a new String object. They don't modify the value of the current instance. Split method separates a single string into multiple strings.

Overloads of the method allow you to specify multiple delimiters, to determine the maximum number of substrings that the method extracts, and to determine whether empty strings which occur when delimiters are adjacent are included among the returned strings.

The following String methods can be used for string concatenation:. Concat combines one or more substrings into a single string. Join concatenates one or more substrings into a single element and adds a separator between each substring.

Format method uses the composite formatting feature to replace one or more placeholders in a string with the string representation of some object or value.

The Format method is often used to do the following:. To embed the string representation of some object that supports the IFormattable interface in a string.

ToString implementation is called. The argument's parameterless ToString method, which either overrides or inherits from a base class implementation, is called.

For an example that intercepts calls to the ICustomFormatter. Format method and allows you to see what information the Format method passes to a formatting method for each format item in a composite format string, see Example: An intercept provider and Roman numeral formatter.

For more information, see the Processing Order section in the Composite Formatting article. The Format method throws a FormatException exception if the index of an index item is greater than or equal to the number of arguments in the argument list.

However, format can include more format items than there are arguments, as long as multiple format items have the same index.

In the call to the Format String, Object method in following example, the argument list has a single argument, but the format string includes two format items: one displays the decimal value of a number, and the other displays its hexadecimal value.

Por lo general, los objetos de la lista de argumentos se convierten en sus representaciones de cadena mediante las convenciones de la referencia cultural actual, devuelta por la propiedad CultureInfo.

Generally, objects in the argument list are converted to their string representations by using the conventions of the current culture, which is returned by the CultureInfo.

CurrentCulture property. You can control this behavior by calling one of the overloads of Format that includes a provider parameter. The provider parameter is an IFormatProvider implementation that supplies custom and culture-specific formatting information that is used to moderate the formatting process.

The IFormatProvider interface has a single member, GetFormat , which is responsible for returning the object that provides formatting information.

Its GetFormat method returns a culture-specific NumberFormatInfo object for formatting numeric values and a culture-specific DateTimeFormatInfo object for formatting date and time values.

DateTimeFormatInfo , which is used for culture-specific formatting of date and time values. Its GetFormat method returns itself.

NumberFormatInfo , which is used for culture-specific formatting of numeric values. Its GetFormat property returns itself.

You can also call the any of the overloads of the Format method that have a provider parameter of type IFormatProvider to perform custom formatting operations.

For example, you could format an integer as an identification number or as a telephone number. Para realizar el formato personalizado, el argumento provider debe implementar las interfaces IFormatProvider y ICustomFormatter.

To perform custom formatting, your provider argument must implement both the IFormatProvider and ICustomFormatter interfaces. GetFormat y solicita un objeto de tipo ICustomFormatter.

GetFormat implementation and requests an object of type ICustomFormatter. It then calls the returned ICustomFormatter object's Format method to format each format item in the composite string passed to it.

For an example that converts integers to formatted custom numbers, see Example: A custom formatting operation. For an example that converts unsigned bytes to Roman numerals, see Example: An intercept provider and Roman numeral formatter.

This example defines a format provider that formats an integer value as a customer account number in the form x-xxxxx-xx.

En este ejemplo se define un proveedor de formato personalizado que implementa las interfaces ICustomFormatter y IFormatProvider para hacer dos cosas: This example defines a custom format provider that implements the ICustomFormatter and IFormatProvider interfaces to do two things:.

It displays the parameters passed to its ICustomFormatter. Format implementation. This enables us to see what parameters the Format IFormatProvider, String, Object[] method is passing to the custom formatting implementation for each object that it tries to format.

This can be useful when you're debugging your application. If the object to be formatted is an unsigned byte value that is to be formatted by using the "R" standard format string, the custom formatter formats the numeric value as a Roman numeral.

More flexible. It can be used in any string without requiring a call to a method that supports composite formatting. WriteLine o StringBuilder. Otherwise, you have to call the Format method or another method that supports composite formatting, such as Console.

WriteLine or StringBuilder. More readable. Because the expression to insert into a string appears in the interpolated expression rather than in a argument list, interpolated strings are far easier to code and to read.

Because of their greater readability, interpolated strings can replace not only calls to composite format methods, but they can also be used in string concatenation operations to produce more concise, clearer code.

A comparison of the following two code examples illustrates the superiority of interpolated strings over string concatenation and calls to composite formatting methods.

The use of multiple string concatenation operations in the following example produces verbose and hard-to-read code. In contrast, the use of interpolated strings in the following example produce much clearer, more concise code than the string concatenation statement and the call to the Format method in the previous example.

For enumeration values, see Enumeration Format Strings. For Guid values, see the Remarks section of the Guid. ToString String reference page.

La sintaxis general de un elemento de formato es la siguiente: The general syntax of a format item is:. Si este valor es negativo, el texto del campo se alinea a la izquierda.

If this value is negative, text in the field is left-aligned. If it is positive, text is right-aligned.

All standard numeric format strings except "D" which is used with integers only , "G", "R", and "X" allow a precision specifier that defines the number of decimal digits in the result string.

The following example uses standard numeric format strings to control the number of decimal digits in the result string. If you're using a custom numeric format string , use the "0" format specifier to control the number of decimal digits in the result string, as the following example shows.

By default, formatting operations only display non-zero integral digits. If you are formatting integers, you can use a precision specifier with the "D" and "X" standard format strings to control the number of digits.

You can pad an integer or floating-point number with leading zeros to produce a result string with a specified number of integral digits by using the "0" custom numeric format specifier , as the following example shows.

There is no practical limit. The second parameter of the Format IFormatProvider, String, Object[] method is tagged with the ParamArrayAttribute attribute, which allows you to include either a delimited list or an object array as your format list.

For example, how do you prevent the following method call from throwing a FormatException exception? Una sola llave de apertura o de cierre siempre se interpreta como el principio o el final de un elemento de formato.

A single opening or closing brace is always interpreted as the beginning or end of a format item. To be interpreted literally, it must be escaped.

However, even escaped braces are easily misinterpreted. Se recomienda incluir llaves en la lista de formatos y usar los elementos de formato para insertarlas en la cadena de resultado, como se muestra en el ejemplo siguiente.

We recommend that you include braces in the format list and use format items to insert them in the result string, as the following example shows.

The most common cause of the exception is that the index of a format item doesn't correspond to an object in the format list. Usually this indicates that you've misnumbered the indexes of format items or you've forgotten to include an object in the format list.

Attempting to include an unescaped left or right brace character also throws a FormatException. This is a problem of compiler overload resolution.

Because the compiler cannot convert an array of integers to an object array, it treats the integer array as a single argument, so it calls the Format String, Object method.

The exception is thrown because there are four format items but only a single item in the format list.

Because neither Visual Basic nor C can convert an integer array to an object array, you have to perform the conversion yourself before calling the Format String, Object[] method.

The following example provides one implementation. Cadena de formato compuesto. A composite format string. Objeto al que se va a aplicar formato.

The object to format. A copy of format in which any format items are replaced by the string representation of arg0.

The format item in format is invalid. O bien -or-. The index of a format item is not zero. This method uses the composite formatting feature to convert the value of an expression to its string representation and to embed that representation in a string.

Format , no es necesario centrarse en la sobrecarga concreta que se quiere llamar. However, when calling the String. Although some methods, such as the methods of encoding and decoding objects in the System.

Text namespace, may performs checks to ensure that strings are well-formed, String class members don't ensure that a string is well-formed. A single Char object usually represents a single code point; that is, the numeric value of the Char equals the code point.

However, a code point might require more than one encoded element more than one Char object. The Unicode standard defines two types of characters that correspond to multiple Char objects: graphemes, and Unicode supplementary code points that correspond to characters in the Unicode supplementary planes.

A grapheme is represented by a base character followed by one or more combining characters. As the following example shows, a culture-sensitive comparison for equality indicates that these two representations are equal, although an ordinary ordinal comparison does not.

However, if the two strings are normalized, an ordinal comparison also indicates that they are equal.

For more information on normalizing strings, see the Normalization section. A Unicode supplementary code point a surrogate pair is represented by a Char object whose code point is a high surrogate followed by a Char object whose code point is a low surrogate.

Los pares suplentes se usan para representar caracteres en los 16 planos complementarios de Unicode. Surrogate pairs are used to represent characters in the 16 Unicode supplementary planes.

IsSurrogatePair Char, Char para determinar si se trata de un par suplente. The following example creates a surrogate character and passes it to the Char.

IsSurrogatePair Char, Char method to determine whether it is a surrogate pair. Characters in a string are represented by UTF encoded code units, which correspond to Char values.

Each character in a string has an associated Unicode character category, which is represented in. NET by the UnicodeCategory enumeration.

The category of a character or a surrogate pair can be determined by calling the CharUnicodeInfo. GetUnicodeCategory method.

NET maintains its own table of characters and their corresponding categories, which ensures that a specific version of a.

NET implementation running on different platforms returns identical character category information. En el caso de. En la tabla siguiente se enumeran las versiones de.

The following table lists. NET versions and the versions of the Unicode Standard on which their character categories are based.

In addition,. NET supports string comparison and sorting based on the Unicode standard. En las versiones del. NET Framework 4 , el.

NET Framework mantiene su propia tabla de datos de cadena. In versions of the. NET Framework through the. NET Framework 4 , the.

NET Framework maintains its own table of string data. NET Framework a partir de la. NET Framework 4. This is also true of versions of the. NET Framework starting with the.

A partir de la. Starting with the. The following table lists the versions of. NET and the versions of the Unicode Standard on which character comparison and sorting are based.

NET, un objeto String puede incluir caracteres nulos incrustados, que cuentan como parte de la longitud de la cadena.

NET, a String object can include embedded null characters, which count as a part of the string's length.

El valor devuelto por las funciones strlen o wcslen no es necesariamente igual a String. The value returned by the strlen or wcslen functions does not necessarily equal String.

Copy method. Embedded null characters in a string are also treated differently when a string is sorted or compared and when a string is searched.

Los caracteres nulos se omiten al realizar comparaciones dependientes de la referencia cultural entre dos cadenas, incluidas las comparaciones que usan la referencia cultural de todos los idiomas.

Null characters are ignored when performing culture-sensitive comparisons between two strings, including comparisons using the invariant culture.

They are considered only for ordinal or case-insensitive ordinal comparisons. On the other hand, embedded null characters are always considered when searching a string with methods such as Contains , StartsWith , and IndexOf.

An index is the position of a Char object not a Unicode character in a String. An index is a zero-based, nonnegative number that starts from the first position in the string, which is index position zero.

A number of search methods, such as IndexOf and LastIndexOf , return the index of a character or substring in the string instance.

The Chars[] property lets you access individual Char objects by their index position in the string. Because the Chars[] property is the default property in Visual Basic or the indexer in C , you can access the individual Char objects in a string by using code such as the following.

This code looks for white space or punctuation characters in a string to determine how many words the string contains.

Because the String class implements the IEnumerable interface, you can also iterate through the Char objects in a string by using a foreach construct, as the following example shows.

Consecutive index values might not correspond to consecutive Unicode characters, because a Unicode character might be encoded as more than one Char object.

In particular, a string may contain multi-character units of text that are formed by a base character followed by one or more combining characters or by surrogate pairs.

Para trabajar con caracteres Unicode en lugar de Char objetos, utilice las clases System. EnumerateRunes y el struct Rune. To work with Unicode characters instead of Char objects, use the System.

EnumerateRunes method and the Rune struct. The following example illustrates the difference between code that works with Char objects and code that works with Unicode characters.

It compares the number of characters or text elements in each word of a sentence. The string includes two sequences of a base character followed by a combining character.

This example works with text elements by using the StringInfo. You can also retrieve an array that contains the starting index of each text element by calling the StringInfo.

ParseCombiningCharacters method. For more information about working with units of text rather than individual Char values, see Introduction to character encoding in.

Una cadena que se ha declarado pero a la que no se le ha asignado un valor es null. A string that has been declared but has not been assigned a value is null.

Attempting to call methods on that string throws a NullReferenceException. A null string is different from an empty string, which is a string whose value is "" or String.

In some cases, passing either a null string or an empty string as an argument in a method call throws an exception.

For example, passing a null string to the Int In other cases, a method argument can be either a null string or an empty string.

For example, if you are providing an IFormattable implementation for a class, you want to equate both a null string and an empty string with the general "G" format specifier.

IsNullOrEmpty , que indica si una cadena es null o es igual que String. IsNullOrEmpty , which indicates whether a string is either null or is equal to String.

Empty o se compone exclusivamente de caracteres de espacio en blanco. Empty , or consists exclusively of white-space characters.

ToString de una clase Temperature personalizada. ToString implementation of a custom Temperature class. The method supports the "G", "C", "F", and "K" format strings.

If an empty format string or a format string whose value is null is passed to the method, its value is changed to the "G" format string.

Un objeto de String se denomina inmutable de solo lectura , porque su valor no se puede modificar una vez creado. A String object is called immutable read-only , because its value cannot be modified after it has been created.

Methods that appear to modify a String object actually return a new String object that contains the modification. Because strings are immutable, string manipulation routines that perform repeated additions or deletions to what appears to be a single string can exact a significant performance penalty.

For example, the following code uses a random number generator to create a string with characters in the range 0x to 0xF.

Although the code appears to use string concatenation to append a new character to the existing string named str , it actually creates a new String object for each concatenation operation.

Puede usar la clase StringBuilder en lugar de la clase String para las operaciones que realizan varios cambios en el valor de una cadena.

You can use the StringBuilder class instead of the String class for operations that make multiple changes to the value of a string. A diferencia de las instancias de la clase String , StringBuilder objetos son mutables; al concatenar, anexar o eliminar subcadenas de una cadena, las operaciones se realizan en una sola cadena.

Unlike instances of the String class, StringBuilder objects are mutable; when you concatenate, append, or delete substrings from a string, the operations are performed on a single string.

ToString para convertirlo en una cadena. When you have finished modifying the value of a StringBuilder object, you can call its StringBuilder.

ToString method to convert it to a string. En el ejemplo siguiente se reemplaza el String utilizado en el ejemplo anterior para concatenar caracteres aleatorios en el intervalo de 0x a 0xF con un objeto StringBuilder.

The following example replaces the String used in the previous example to concatenate random characters in the range to 0x to 0xF with a StringBuilder object.

Members of the String class perform either ordinal or culture-sensitive linguistic operations on a String object. An ordinal operation acts on the numeric value of each Char object.

A culture-sensitive operation acts on the value of the String object, and takes culture-specific casing, sorting, formatting, and parsing rules into account.

Culture-sensitive operations execute in the context of an explicitly declared culture or the implicit current culture.

Los dos tipos de operaciones pueden producir resultados muy diferentes cuando se realizan en la misma cadena. The two kinds of operations can produce very different results when they are performed on the same string.

NET also supports culture-insensitive linguistic string operations by using the invariant culture CultureInfo. InvariantCulture , which is loosely based on the culture settings of the English language independent of region.

Unlike other System. CultureInfo settings, the settings of the invariant culture are guaranteed to remain consistent on a single computer, from system to system, and across versions of.

La referencia cultural de todos los idiomas puede verse como un tipo de cuadro negro que garantiza la estabilidad de las comparaciones de cadenas y el orden en todas las referencias culturales.

The invariant culture can be seen as a kind of black box that ensures stability of string comparisons and ordering across all cultures.

If your application makes a security decision about a symbolic identifier such as a file name or named pipe, or about persisted data such as the text-based data in an XML file, the operation should use an ordinal comparison instead of a culture-sensitive comparison.

This is because a culture-sensitive comparison can yield different results depending on the culture in effect, whereas an ordinal comparison depends solely on the binary value of the compared characters.

Most methods that perform string operations include an overload that has a parameter of type StringComparison , which enables you to specify whether the method performs an ordinal or culture-sensitive operation.

In general, you should call this overload to make the intent of your method call clear. For best practices and guidance for using ordinal and culture-sensitive operations on strings, see Best Practices for Using Strings.

Operations for casing , parsing and formatting , comparison and sorting , and testing for equality can be either ordinal or culture-sensitive. The following sections discuss each category of operation.

You should always call a method overload that makes the intent of your method call clear. CurrentCulture para el argumento comparisonType.

For example, instead of calling the Compare String, String method to perform a culture-sensitive comparison of two strings by using the conventions of the current culture, you should call the Compare String, String, StringComparison method with a value of StringComparison.

CurrentCulture for the comparisonType argument. For more information, see Best Practices for Using Strings.

You can download the Sorting Weight Tables , a set of text files that contain information on the character weights used in sorting and comparison operations for Windows operating systems, and the Default Unicode Collation Element Table , the sort weight table for Linux and macOS.

Casing rules determine how to change the capitalization of a Unicode character; for example, from lowercase to uppercase. Often, a casing operation is performed before a string comparison.

For example, a string might be converted to uppercase so that it can be compared with another uppercase string.

You can convert the characters in a string to lowercase by calling the ToLower or ToLowerInvariant method, and you can convert them to uppercase by calling the ToUpper or ToUpperInvariant method.

In addition, you can use the TextInfo. ToTitleCase method to convert a string to title case. NET Core running on Linux and macOS systems only: The collation behavior for the C and Posix cultures is always case-sensitive because these cultures do not use the expected Unicode collation order.

We recommend that you use a culture other than C or Posix for performing culture-sensitive, case-insensitive sorting operations. Casing operations can be based on the rules of the current culture, a specified culture, or the invariant culture.

Because case mappings can vary depending on the culture used, the result of casing operations can vary based on culture.

The following example demonstrates how a string comparison designed to prevent file system access can fail if it relies on a culture-sensitive casing comparison.

The casing conventions of the invariant culture should have been used. Differences in case mappings between the invariant culture and all other cultures.

In these cases, using the casing rules of the invariant culture to change a character to uppercase or lowercase returns the same character.

For all other cultures, it returns a different character. En la tabla siguiente se enumeran algunos de los caracteres afectados. Some of the affected characters are listed in the following table.

In most cultures, a two-letter mixed-case pair is equal to the equivalent two-letter uppercase or lowercase pair.

However, it is unusual to encounter a situation in which a culture-sensitive comparison of these pairs creates problems, because these pairs are uncommon in fixed strings or identifiers.

The following example illustrates some of the differences in casing rules between cultures when converting strings to uppercase.

Formatting and parsing are inverse operations. Formatting rules determine how to convert a value, such as a date and time or a number, to its string representation, whereas parsing rules determine how to convert a string representation to a value such as a date and time.

Both formatting and parsing rules are dependent on cultural conventions. The following example illustrates the ambiguity that can arise when interpreting a culture-specific date string.

Similarly, as the following example shows, a single string can produce different dates depending on the culture whose conventions are used in the parsing operation.

Conventions for comparing and sorting strings vary from culture to culture. For example, the sort order may be based on phonetics or on the visual representation of characters.

En los idiomas de Este de Asia, los caracteres se ordenan teniendo en cuenta los trazos y el radical de los ideogramas. In East Asian languages, characters are sorted by the stroke and radical of ideographs.

Sorting also depends on the order languages and cultures use for the alphabet. In addition, comparisons can be case-sensitive or case-insensitive, and in some cases casing rules also differ by culture.

Ordinal comparison, on the other hand, uses the Unicode code points of individual characters in a string when comparing and sorting strings.

Sort rules determine the alphabetic order of Unicode characters and how two strings compare to each other. For example, the String.

If the parameter value is StringComparison. CurrentCulture , the method performs a linguistic comparison that uses the conventions of the current culture; if the parameter value is StringComparison.

Ordinal , the method performs an ordinal comparison. Consequently, as the following example shows, if the current culture is U.

English, the first call to the String. Compare String, String, StringComparison method using culture-sensitive comparison considers "a" less than "A", but the second call to the same method using ordinal comparison considers "a" greater than "A".

NET supports word, string, and ordinal sort rules:. A word sort performs a culture-sensitive comparison of strings in which certain nonalphanumeric Unicode characters might have special weights assigned to them.

For example, the hyphen - might have a very small weight assigned to it so that "coop" and "co-op" appear next to each other in a sorted list.

For a list of the String methods that compare two strings using word sort rules, see the String operations by category section. A string sort also performs a culture-sensitive comparison.

It is similar to a word sort, except that there are no special cases, and all nonalphanumeric symbols come before all alphanumeric Unicode characters.

Two strings can be compared using string sort rules by calling the CompareInfo. Compare method overloads that have an options parameter that is supplied a value of CompareOptions.

Note that this is the only method that. NET provides to compare two strings using string sort rules. An ordinal sort compares strings based on the numeric value of each Char object in the string.

An ordinal comparison is automatically case-sensitive because the lowercase and uppercase versions of a character have different code points.

However, if case is not important, you can specify an ordinal comparison that ignores case. This is equivalent to converting the string to uppercase by using the invariant culture and then performing an ordinal comparison on the result.

For a list of the String methods that compare two strings using ordinal sort rules, see the String operations by category section.

A culture-sensitive comparison is any comparison that explicitly or implicitly uses a CultureInfo object, including the invariant culture that is specified by the CultureInfo.

InvariantCulture property. CurrentCulture y CultureInfo. The implicit culture is the current culture, which is specified by the Thread.

CurrentCulture and CultureInfo. CurrentCulture properties. IsLetter devuelve true en todas las referencias culturales.

There is considerable variation in the sort order of alphabetic characters that is, characters for which the Char.

IsLetter property returns true across cultures. You can specify a culture-sensitive comparison that uses the conventions of a specific culture by supplying a CultureInfo object to a string comparison method such as Compare String, String, CultureInfo, CompareOptions.

CurrentCulture , StringComparison. Ordinal o CompareOptions. You can specify a culture-sensitive comparison that uses the conventions of the current culture by supplying StringComparison.

Ordinal or CompareOptions. OrdinalIgnoreCase to an appropriate overload of the Compare method. A culture-sensitive comparison is generally appropriate for sorting whereas an ordinal comparison is not.

An ordinal comparison is generally appropriate for determining whether two strings are equal that is, for determining identity whereas a culture-sensitive comparison is not.

The following example illustrates the difference between culture-sensitive and ordinal comparison. If you want the strings to be ordered based on the user's culture, you should order them based on the conventions of the current culture.

If the user's culture changes, the order of sorted strings will also change accordingly. For example, a thesaurus application should always sort words based on the user's culture.

If you want the strings to be ordered based on the conventions of a specific culture, you should order them by supplying a CultureInfo object that represents that culture to a comparison method.

For example, in an application designed to teach students a particular language, you want strings to be ordered based on the conventions of one of the cultures that speaks that language.

If you want the order of strings to remain unchanged across cultures, you should order them based on the conventions of the invariant culture or use an ordinal comparison.

For example, you would use an ordinal sort to organize the names of files, processes, mutexes, or named pipes. For a comparison that involves a security decision such as whether a username is valid , you should always perform an ordinal test for equality by calling an overload of the Equals method.

The culture-sensitive sorting and casing rules used in string comparison depend on the version of the. En el. In the. On other Windows operating systems, it conforms to the Unicode 5.

NET Core, it depends on the version of the Unicode Standard supported by the underlying operating system. For more information about word, string, and ordinal sort rules, see the System.

CompareOptions topic. For additional recommendations on when to use each rule, see Best Practices for Using Strings. Ordinarily, you don't call string comparison methods such as Compare directly to determine the sort order of strings.

Instead, comparison methods are called by sorting methods such as Array. The following example performs four different sorting operations word sort using the current culture, word sort using the invariant culture, ordinal sort, and string sort using the invariant culture without explicitly calling a string comparison method, although they do specify the type of comparison to use.

Note that each type of sort produces a unique ordering of strings in its array. NET uses sort keys to support culturally sensitive string comparison.

Each character in a string is given several categories of sort weights, including alphabetic, case, and diacritic.

A sort key, represented by the SortKey class, provides a repository of these weights for a particular string. If your app performs a large number of searching or sorting operations on the same set of strings, you can improve its performance by generating and storing sort keys for all the strings that it uses.

When a sort or comparison operation is required, you use the sort keys instead of the strings. For more information, see the SortKey class.

If you don't specify a string comparison convention, sorting methods such as Array. Sort Array perform a culture-sensitive, case-sensitive sort on strings.

The following example illustrates how changing the current culture affects the order of sorted strings in an array. Crea una matriz de tres cadenas.

It creates an array of three strings. En primer lugar, se establece la propiedad System. Sort Array. First, it sets the System.

CurrentCulture property to en-US and calls the Array. Sort Array method. The resulting sort order is based on sorting conventions for the English United States culture.

Next, the example sets the System. CurrentCulture property to da-DK and calls the Array. Sort method again. Notice how the resulting sort order differs from the en-US results because it uses the sorting conventions for Danish Denmark.

If your primary purpose in comparing strings is to determine whether they are equal, you should call the String. Equals method.

Typically, you should use Equals to perform an ordinal comparison. The String. Compare method is intended primarily to sort strings. StartsWith y String.

String search methods, such as String. StartsWith and String. IndexOf , also can perform culture-sensitive or ordinal string comparisons. The following example illustrates the differences between ordinal and culture-sensitive comparisons using the IndexOf method.

An ordinal search, on the other hand, does not find a match in either case. IndexOf , also can perform culture-sensitive or ordinal string comparisons to determine whether a character or substring is found in a specified string.

The search methods in the String class that search for an individual character, such as the IndexOf method, or one of a set of characters, such as the IndexOfAny method, all perform an ordinal search.

LastIndexOf String, Char. To perform a culture-sensitive search for a character, you must call a CompareInfo method such as CompareInfo.

Note that the results of searching for a character using ordinal and culture-sensitive comparison can be very different.

IndexOf Char y CompareInfo. The following example illustrates the difference between the String. IndexOf Char and CompareInfo.

IndexOf String, Char methods when searching for an individual character. On the other hand, String class methods that search for a string rather than a character perform a culture-sensitive search if search options are not explicitly specified by a parameter of type StringComparison.

The sole exception is Contains , which performs an ordinal search. Use the String. Compare method to determine the relationship of two strings in the sort order.

Typically, this is a culture-sensitive operation. Equals para comprobar la igualdad. In contrast, call the String.

Equals method to test for equality. Because the test for equality usually compares user input with some known string, such as a valid user name, a password, or a file system path, it is typically an ordinal operation.

Compare y determinando si el valor devuelto es cero. It is possible to test for equality by calling the String. Compare method and determining whether the return value is zero.

However, this practice is not recommended. To determine whether two strings are equal, you should call one of the overloads of the String.

The preferred overload to call is either the instance Equals String, StringComparison method or the static Equals String, String, StringComparison method, because both methods include a System.

StringComparison parameter that explicitly specifies the type of comparison. The following example illustrates the danger of performing a culture-sensitive comparison for equality when an ordinal one should be used instead.

Como resultado, se permite el acceso al sistema de archivos de forma inadvertida. As a result, file system access is inadvertently permitted.

On the other hand, if an ordinal comparison is performed, the comparison for equality succeeds, and file system access is denied. Algunos caracteres Unicode tienen varias representaciones.

Some Unicode characters have multiple representations. Multiple representations for a single character complicate searching, sorting, matching, and other string operations.

The Unicode standard defines a process called normalization that returns one binary representation of a Unicode character for any of its equivalent binary representations.

Normalization can use several algorithms, called normalization forms, that follow different rules. When strings have been normalized to the same normalization form, they can be compared by using ordinal comparison.

An ordinal comparison is a binary comparison of the Unicode scalar value of corresponding Char objects in each string. The method performs an ordinal comparison if you supply a value of StringComparison.

Ordinal or OrdinalIgnoreCase for this parameter. The overloads of the CompareOrdinal method. Methods that use ordinal comparison by default, such as Contains , Replace , and Split.

Methods that search for a Char value or for the elements in a Char array in a string instance. You can determine whether a string is normalized to normalization form C by calling the String.

IsNormalized method, or you can call the String. IsNormalized NormalizationForm method to determine whether a string is normalized to a specified normalization form.

You can also call the String. Normalize method to convert a string to normalization form C, or you can call the String. Normalize NormalizationForm method to convert a string to a specified normalization form.

For step-by-step information about normalizing and comparing strings, see the Normalize and Normalize NormalizationForm methods.

The following simple example illustrates string normalization. It then converts each string to the supported normalization forms, and again performs an ordinal comparison of each string in a specified normalization form.

En cada caso, la segunda prueba de igualdad muestra que las cadenas son iguales. In each case, the second test for equality shows that the strings are equal.